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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-16

Animal models of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: A critical overview and suggestions

1 Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 Physiotherapy, Vocational School of Health Services, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Mesut Karahan
Assoc. Prof. Mesut Karahan, Vocational School of Health Services, Uskudar University, Istanbul
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_7_21

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Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorder that appears as a subset of attention deficit and different subspecies in which both occur together and is generally observed in childhood. Pharmacological agents such as atomoxetine and methylphenidate, which are widely used against the disease, appear with different and important side effects. Since the causes of the disease are not clearly understood, many studies are carried out on various animal models in order to both understand the etiology and develop new treatment models. In this review, a holistic approach to ADHD will be presented and advances in animal models, neuroimaging, neurodevelopmental, and neurochemical conditions will be presented using different perspectives. It is very important to understand how different animal models are effective in the development of pharmacological agents. In addition, comparing ADHD with different types of disease can detect similarities and further strengthen the etiological basis. Our major proposal is to draw attention to the further development of animal models related to the importance of the thalamus, which officially sees a filter of perception. Different animal models are needed to do all this because the disease is not fully modeled, except for the symptoms of ADHD. The current review will conclude that none of the currently discussed models meet all the necessary validation criteria, but that newly created genetic models, therapeutic strategies, and the disease mechanism may be radically important points.

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