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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-21

Evaluation of ethanol extract of Curcuma longa in lead-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Rimamnde Usman Elisha
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_36_22

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Background: Heavy metals such as lead are ubiquitous elements at exposure causing deleterious effects on the brain and leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Aim: In this investigation, the neurotherapeutic effects of ethanol extract of Curcuma longa (EECl) against lead-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in rats were examined. Biochemical examination for antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxide level (malondialdehyde [MDA], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and glutathione [GSH]) was evaluated, the Barnes maze for learning and memory, and histological analysis (H and E stain) for general histoarchitectural features to investigate the neurotherapeutic characteristics of EECl. Materials and Methods: Six groups totalling 36 rats were created (n = 6). In the first group, rats received distilled water (2 mg/kg), in the second, lead acetate (LA) (120 mg/kg), in the third, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg), and the 4th, 5th, and 6th groups, rats received LA (120 mg/kg) and EECl (375 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg, respectively) for 14 days. Results: A significant learning and memory deficit was seen in the LA-treated group's results, but a significant improvement was seen in the EECl-treated group. Increased oxidative stress was seen in the LA-treated group, as evidenced by an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH). A decline in MDA levels and an increase in SOD and GSH activity was the evidence of the ameliorative effects of EECl treatment. Cytoarchitectural distortions relative to the control were observed with the LA-treated group. Mild distortion was however detected with EECl treatment. Conclusion: EECl has possible neurotherapeutic properties against LA-induced pathological changes in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. EECl may have neuroprotective effects against degenerative alterations brought on by LA.

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