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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-August 2021
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 81-178

Online since Friday, August 13, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Critical appraisals on depression and psychotic symptoms p. 81
Faizan Ahmad, Anmol Virmani, Mahammad Irfan, Sourbh Rankawat, Upasana Pathak
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_17_21  
Psychosis includes hallucination, illusion, and delusion. Psychotic symptoms are quite uncommon in disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Biploar affective disorder (BPAD) but Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder. In this review, we focus on PTSD with psychosis, depression with psychosis and BPAD with psychosis. We mainly shed light on how psychosis related to PTSD, BPAD, and depression as well cover the pharmacological approach to deal with these disorders. We also extend our limit to other management like electroconvulsive therapy and lithium. The main aim of this review is to cover the role of psychosis in different psychiatric disorders and what are its present scenarios with future scope to combat it.
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Temperament and character relations in borderline personality disorder p. 89
Gonca Gül Yilmaz, Meltem Sen, Süleyman Dönmezler, Habib Erensoy, Tonguç Demir Berkol
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_8_21  
Aim: Understanding human behavior is a common struggle among psychology researchers and clinicians. One of the mysteries in psychology is the relation of temperament with a psychiatric disorder. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate this association with other perspectives. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted between 2017 and 2018. Participants consisted of 88 people, who were freely selected and separated as treated and untreated from NP Istanbul Hospital and Polyclinics. There are two groups of paticipants who have borderline personality disorder; 48 untreated patients which are 24 men and 24 women and 40 treated patients which are 20 men and 20. The evaluations were made through the Demographic Information Form, Temperament and Character Inventory, and Borderline Personality Inventory prepared by the researcher. Results: People under treatment had different scores than the control group. It could be thought that it is evidence that treatment is effective and it may change the temperamental dimensions for people with borderline personality disorder. Many of the results came significantly different between the groups after temperament and character inventory had been applied. The dimensions had differed between the groups. Discussion: People with scores below borderline personality inventory's cutoff value had higher scores with the features that might be helpful for a person to cope with their problems in social and occupational life and to persist in their projects. Patients under treatment had been found to have more features that might negatively affect one's life. It could be thought that people under treatment might have more severe symptoms or might have additional psychiatric problems. Conclusion: This study revealed a few contradictions between DSM-5 and Borderline Personality Inventory and between Borderline Personality Inventory and Temperament and Character Inventory. This study may lead practitioners and researchers to further investigate the field.
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Uskudar democratic leadership scale validity and reliability studies* p. 96
Nevzat Tarhan, Aylin Tutgun-Unal
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_22_21  
Background: The mightiness of the political leader, his strength, his risk-taking leadership, and his emotional contact with society plays an active role in the healthy management of society in many respects. A psychometric “democratic leadership scale” is needed to define the items to determine the limits of authoritarianism and to find the balance between using power and justice. Aims and Objectives: This research aims to conduct a validity and reliability study of a wide range of the Uskudar Democratic Leadership Scale (USDELID). Materials and Methods: Sample consists of 1010 people from Turkey. “Uskudar Political Leadership Scale-USPOLID” was used for the validity of the criteria. Results: The internal coefficient of consistency (α) of the scale was found to be .97. Analysis revealed that the scale consists of four factors. The first factor “Libertarianism/Pluralism” alone accounts for 71.81% of the variance, the second factor “Justice Orientation” accounts for 3.90% of the variance, the third factor “Participation” accounts for 3.16% of the variance, and the fourth factor “Accountability” accounts for 1.96% of the variance. These four factors, consisting of a total of 25 items, together accounted for 80.85% of the total variance. Conclusion: As a result of the studies, it was understood that the scale is valid and reliable. An item on the scale is inversely asked to ensure attention by taking part in the scale for control purposes. There has the scale emerged called the USDELID.
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The relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation types on sports continuation p. 107
Hazal Ayas, Turgay Biçer
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_21_21  
Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study is, to determine the effect of perfectionism levels and goal orientation types on the individuals who played licensed basketball in the past, to continue their basketball life at a professional/amateur level or dropped out basketball. Methods: The sample of the study consists of a licensed basketball history, a total of 150 participants who continue at the amateur level (50), professional level (50), and dropped out basketball/continue as a hobby (50). Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire developed by Duda et al. (1992) to determine types of goal orientation and Multidimensional Perfectionism Questionnaire (Frost et al., 1990) to predict perfectionism levels were used to collect data. The data analyzed with SPSS 25.0 program with one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses. Results: As a result of analyses, there were no significant differences between task and ego orientation and perfectionism and sport continuation types of participants. It was also found that according to correlation analysis conducted to determine the relationship between task and ego orientation among the styles of continuing sports; a statistically significant positive moderate relationship between task and ego orientation score of participants who dropped out basketball and continue at an amateur level; on the other hand, a high positive correlation was found between goal orientation and ego orientation of those who continue at professional level. Conclusion: Results provide a richer understanding of the effects of goals orientations with perfectionism and their relationship to performance and have implications on sport continuation.
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An in-depth examination of visuospatial functions in a group of Turkish children with dyslexia p. 114
Yeşim Mersin, Merve Çebi
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_16_21  
Aim: Developmental dyslexia is basically defined as a learning disorder characterized by reading, writing, spelling, and word comprehension difficulties. Phonological deficits in dyslexia are well established in literature, yet, research also indicates some visuospatial difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial functions in Turkish children with dyslexia and to show the interrelationship of visuospatial perception, visual memory, and executive functions. Methods: The sample of this study was composed of 20 children (9 female and 11 male) with developmental dyslexia and 20 age-matched controls (11 female and 9 male). The children in dyslexia group were previously diagnosed as dyslexic according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-IV criteria in a private rehabilitation center. Rey-Osterreich complex figure test (ROCF), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Judgment of Line Orientation test (JLOT) were used to evaluate visuospatial functions of the children. Results: Comparison analyses showed that dyslexia group significantly differed from the control group in all visuospatial test scores (P < 0.05 for all). In addition, a positive correlation was present between JLOT score and ROCF direct copying score, ROCF immediate memory score, ROCF delayed memory score, and CDT score for the dyslexic group (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: Our findings confirm the presence of visuospatial problems in dyslexia and highlight the importance of interaction between perceptual and executive processes indicating a more fundamental cognitive deficit.
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Examining the relationship between attachment, somatization, and expressing emotions p. 119
Hatice Yesil, Büsra Özdogan, Hüseyin Ünübol, Gökben Hizli Sayar
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_19_21  
Aim: The baby's special relationship with his caregiver affects his future psychological and physical health. The disruption of the mother-baby bonding can lead to mental difficulties and even psychopathologies in that period and afterward. This study aimed to reveal the relationships between attachment, expressing emotion, and somatization. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 volunteer university students, 142 females, 33 males, were included in the study. In the study, data were collected via self-report forms, namely, sociodemographic form, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Somatization Scale, and the Emotional Expression Questionnaire. Results: A low level of negative correlation was found between expressing emotions and attachment to the mother. A weak but statistically significant negative relationship was found between somatization and attachment to mother and father. A weakly significant negative correlation was found between somatization and Overprotection-Father scores. While the somatization scores of the participants increased, the perceived protective, controlling, nonsupporting attitudes of the father also increased significantly. Conclusion: Further research needs to be focused on the theoretical and clinical implications of these results. The precise nature of these possible relationships is yet to be interpreted.
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The adaptation of gender identity / gender dysphoria questionnaire for adults: Turkish validity and reliability studies p. 125
Nevzat Tarhan, Emel Sari Gokten, Aylin Tutgun-Unal, Ayse Sahin
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_23_21  
Background: The fact that the concepts of sexual identity and gender dysphoria have become more important all over the world and in Turkey has led clinicians to need powerful measuring tools to evaluate and comment on this structure. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate language equivalence, validity, and reliability studies of the Turkish version of the Gender Identity / Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adult (GIDQ), which was developed by Deogracias et al. (2007). Materials and Methods: The scale was applied to 368 individuals (heterosexual and nonheterosexual) consisting of university students and trans-oriented individuals. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed positive and significant values in the consistency analysis between the English and Turkish forms for linguistic equivalence studies of the GIDQ Adult Form for ages 18 and over. Results: The factor analysis performed to determine the construct validity of the 5-item Likert type scale, the original of which has a single factor and 27 items, a single factor, and 25-item structure were obtained which accounted for 51.8% of the total variance. When the internal consistency of the scale was calculated, the Cronbach Alpha value was found to be 0.89. Conclusion: According to the comparison of three groups (heterosexual, nonheterosexual, and those with gender dysphoria), average calculations, and effect size (d) analyses in the discrimination validity studies, it was observed that the gender dissatisfaction of university students was at a low level. It was found to be close to the intermediate level in the nonheterosexual male group. The results show that the Turkish form of the scale is valid and reliable.
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Night eating syndrome and sleep quality among Turkish university students in COVID-19 pandemic p. 135
Melike Buse Yildiz, Sena Sarikaya, Sevval Temi?rçi?n, Buse Gül Dener, Rümeysa Rabia Kocatürk, Esra Tansu Sariyer, Ekin Çevi?k, Hatice Çolak, Öznur Özge Özcan, Türker Tekin Ergüzel, Mesut Karahan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_27_21  
Backround: There is a positive relationship between night eating syndrome (NES) and sleep quality. However, it is not known how this situation changes among students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to reveal the relationship between anthropometric measurements, NES, and sleep quality in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained through an online survey from March to June 2020 during pandemic in Turkey from university students (n = 100). They completed an online Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Night Eating Questionnaire, also anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: University students had sleep disturbance. The sleep disturbance had an effect on NES (P < 0.001, rho = 0.386). A positive relation was found between sleeping pill use and NES (Z = −2.218, P = 0.027) and appetizing drugs and sleep (Z = −2.410, P = 0.016). Conlusion: The occurrence of sleep disturbances in students may increase the incidence of NES during COVID-19 pandemic. This study achieved a short-term result in a limited sample, and we suggest conducting large-scale studies on student health. University students should be considered and public health policies should be implemented in terms of eating disorders and sleep quality.
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Quality of the life and depression levels of pregnant women with suspected/confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Turkey p. 142
Ayca Demir Yildirim, Feyzanur Erdem, Tugba Yilmaz Esencan, Binnur Erdem
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_18_21  
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of depression levels on the quality of life of pregnant women with probable and confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The sample of the study was composed of thirty pregnant women who were defined as probable and confirmed cases in the COVID-19 Case Tracking module of the Public Health Software System. Results: The average age of pregnant women participating in the study was 32.53 ± 3.71 (min: 24, max: 40). The mean Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care score of the pregnant women participating in the study was 2.2 ± 2.8 (min: 7, max: 20). Only five of the pregnant women had a high probability of depression. Considering the participants' average scores from the Short Form-36 Health Survey subdimensions, it is seen that the highest score of pregnant women is in the mental health category (x: 71.37 ± 2 8.8 6). The COVID-19 test result and the parameters of quality of life subscale were compared, and a statistically significant relationship was found between the social life quality of not only pregnant women with positive COVID-19 test results but also that of the women with negative test results (t: −2,627, P: 0.014). Conclusion: It is obvious that people's mental health is negatively affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this reason, midwifery care, which will be given to ensure that pregnant women are least affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, to protect their mental health, and to increase their quality of life, is even more important.
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Collectivity as a basic instinct for survival: Mechanisms and clinical reflections p. 150
Baris Önen Ünsalver, Mehmet Emin Ceylan, Aslihan Dönmez, Fatma Duygu Yertutanol, Alper Evrensel
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_20_21  
Collectivity, referred as the drive to be and stay together with the other beings, serves as a basic tool for survival and reproduction. Thus, it should be considered a basic instinct. In the first part of this article, we are describing the basic mechanisms of collectivity: (1) the collectivity instinct, (2) social trust, (3) inter- and intragroup dynamics, and (4) the ability to recognise the facial expression of others. In the second part, we will give some clinical examples (such as autism and narcissistic and paranoid personality disorders) as the disorders of collectivity. The ideas presented here may be the basis for the modification of new psychotherapy techniques for the disorders of collectivity in future.
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On emergent quantities, mental perceptions and constructs, and agencies: A holistic view of existence p. 157
Yunus A Çengel
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_33_21  
There is general agreement that physical entities exist, but there is widespread disagreement on whether nonphysical entities such as emergent quantities, mental constructs, and agencies qualify as existence and the nature of those quantities. At the core of this disagreement lie subjective worldviews and ideological convictions rather than objective reasoning based on observations. Further, there is a growing tendency to view all nonphysical quantities as properties of organization and label them emergent qualities which appear out of nothing and disappear into nothingness. In this paper we present plausible arguments that emergent qualities are not limited to large assemblies of matter and that they are encountered even at subatomic level. We also make a distinction among different kinds of nonphysical entities such as mental constructs invented by the mind and entities discovered by inference, such as the laws of nature. Finally, we present a novel view of the notion of agency, such as the agency of physics which is comprised of the laws and forces of physics, characterized by causal power with the capacity to subjugate and manipulate physical entities made of matter–energy. Once the emergent quantities, mental constructs, and agencies are properly characterized and their concealed interconnections revealed, we can develop a better understanding of reality and envisage how physical and nonphysical entities interplay and how they can be manipulated.
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A review of the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic p. 171
Leman Atasever Varolan, Büsra Özdogan, Gökben Hizli Sayar
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_26_21  
COVID-19 virus emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and spread rapidly all over the world. Its rapid spread was declared as a “pandemic” by the World Health Organization in March 2020. COVID-19 causes many physical, psychological, and social problems. This study aims to reveal the psychological and behavioral effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on different groups with a literature review. It has been observed that the COVID-19 pandemic caused an increase in fear, anxiety, and anger, anxiety disorders in the general population; however, increased stress and life changes caused an increase in posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, insomnia, and even suicidal thoughts. In the studies carried out in this period, it was understood that some special groups such as individuals with previous psychiatric diseases, children and adolescents, the elderly and those with chronic diseases, and healthcare workers who struggled with the disease were more affected. It is necessary to ensure that sensitive groups, especially healthcare workers, who are at risk in terms of the adverse mental effects of the epidemic, are effectively screened, and appropriate evaluation methods and forms should be developed for this purpose.
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